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AJ 3143 Sejarah Amerika Syarikat: Selepas Perang Dunia Kedua
Pensyarah: En. Bilcher Bala
Hari/Waktu Kuliah: Selasa/10.00-12.00 tengahari/BT 1.2
Kelas Tutorial: Isnin 9-10 (BT 1.2) | Isnin 10-12 (BT 1.2) | Isnin 2-3 (BT 1.7) | Selasa 2-3 (BT 1.7) | Selasa 3-4 (BS 1.5)


Abstrak
Kursus ini akan meninjau sejarah Amerika Syarikat semenjak tamatnya Perang Dunia Kedua hingga akhir abad kedua puluh. Penelitian akan ditumpukan terhadap beberapa krisis politik, ekonomi dan sosial misalnya, masalah perkauman, penglibatan Amerika dalam perang di seberang laut, skandal Watergate, perubahan sosial dan masalah dadah pada sepanjang tempoh sejarah berkaitan yang telah mencerminkan proses tamadun Amerika. Perhatian yang khusus juga perlu diberi terhadap beberapa krisis dasar luar Amerika Syarikat agar pelajar-pelajar mampu menggarap imej dan identiti Amerika yang sebenarnya.

Objektif
1. Memahami kesan-kesan Perang Dunia II ke atas masyarakat dari segi pemikiran dan pendirian terhadap keamanan dunia.
2. Memahami bagaimana perang dingin secara langsung dan tidak langsung mempengaruhi perkembangan yang berlaku di negara-negara lain, misalnya tindakan Korea Utara menawan Korea Selatan pada tahun 1950.
3. Memahami tentang masalah-masalah domestik yang dihadapi oleh pemerintah semasa ancaman perang dingin yang terbentuk melalui penelitian kritis terhadap pengalaman sejarah Amerika.
4. Memahami kesinambungan perubahan domestik dan hubungan diplomatik yang berlaku dibawah pemerintahan beberapa orang presiden sejak Richard Nixon hingga William Clinton.

Rujukan
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Asher, Robert. 1996. Concepts in American History. United States: Harper Collins College Publishers.
Asmady Idris. 2000. Amerika Syarikat Kuasa Homogeni Dunia. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka.
Bailey, Thomas A. 1990. A Diplomatic History of the American People. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Bailey, Thomas A. 1990. A Diplomatic History of the American People. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Bartlett, C J. 1994. The Global Conflict: The International Rivalry of The Great Powers, 1880-1990. Second Edition. New York: Longman Group Limited.
Boyer, Pauls. 1999. Promises to Keep. Second Edition. United States: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Brinkley, Alan. 1999. American History: A Survey. Tenth Edition. United States: MacGraw-Hill, Inc.
Brogan, Hugh. 1985. The Longman History of the United States of America. New York: Longman.
Bryson, Bill. 1994. Made in America. London: Seeker & Warburg.
Calvocoressi, Peter. 1993. Politik Dunia Sejak 1945. Terjemahan Abdul Ghaffar Laili. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka.
Davidson, James West and Lytle, Mark Hamilton. 1992. After The Fact. United States: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Davis, Alien F. and Woodman, Harold D. 1997. Conflict and Consensus in American Story. United States : Houghton Mifflin Company.
Divine, Robert A. et al. 1999. America Past and Present. Fifth Edition. USA: Longman: Longman.
Duiker, William J. 1999. Twenty-century World History. Westworth: An International Thomson Publishing Company.
Dunbabin, J.P.D. 1994. The Cold War: The Great Powers and Their Allies. United States: Longman Publishing.
Encyclopedia Americana. Volume 25. 1993. Danburry, Connecticut: Grolier Incorporated.
Esler, Anthony. 1997. The Western World, A Narrative History Prehistory To The Present. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Evana, Harold. 1998. The American Century. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Evana, Harold. 1998. The American Century. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Faragher, John Mack. et.al. 2000. Out of Many: A History of The American People Since 1865. Volume 2. Third Edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Fox, Richard Wightman and Kloppenberg, James T. 1995. A Companion to American Thought. United States : Blackwell Publishers Inc.
Garraty, John A. 1989. 1001 Things Everyone Should Know About American History. New York: Doubleday.
Garraty, John A. et al. 1998. The American Nation: A History of the United States. Columbia University: Wesley Longman.
Goldfield, David. et al. 1998. The American Journey: A History of The United States. Volume II. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Harold M. Vinacke. 1978. Sejarah Timor Jauh Dalam Zaman Moden. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka.
Haynes. Richard F. 1973. The Awesome Power: Harry S. Truman as Commander in Chief. Los Angeles: State University Press.
Hinkelman, Edward G. 1995. USA Business, The Portable Encyclopedia For Doing Business With The United States. San Rafeal, California: World Trade Press.
Hodges, Donald Clark. 1996. America's New Economic Order. England: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
Hoffer, Peter Charles. 2000. The Brave New World, A History of Early America. New York: Hougthon Mifflin Company.
Ingpen, Robert. 1991. Encyclopedia of World Events Eighty Turns Point in History. Singapore: Dragon's World.
John, Keagen. 1989. The Second Of World War. USA: Peguin Books.
Jordan, Winthrop D. dan Litwack, Leon F. 1994. The United States: Brief Edition. Fourth Edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Kellogg, O. William. 1995. American History: The Easy Way. Second Edition. USA: Barren Education Series, Inc.
Kennedy, P. 1994. Kebangkitan dan Kejatuhan Kuasa-kuasa Besar: Perusahaan ekonomi dan ketenteraan dari tahun 1500-2000. Terjemahan Mohd Nor Long. et al. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Lafeber, Walter. 1997. The American Age: United States Foreign Policy Home and Abroad Since 1750. New York: W. W. Norton.
Lindsey, O. Howard. 1995. A History of Black America. London: Magna Book.
Lowe, Peter. 1986. The Origins of Korean War. United States: Longman Publishing.
Luedtke, L.S., (ed.). 1987. Making America: The Society and Culture of the United States. Washington D.C.: United States Information Agency.
Luedtke, L.S., (ed.). 1987. Making America: The Society and Culture of the United States. Washington D.C.: United States Information Agency.
Mohd Noor Yazid. 2000. Politik Antarabangsa Asia Pasifik. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributors Sdn Bhd.
Morgan, Edmund S.. 1975. American Slavery American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. New York: W.N. Norton and Company.
Nash, Gary B. et al. 1994. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society. Third Edition. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.
Nash, Gary B. et al. 1996. A History of Asia. Second Edition. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.
Palmer, R. R. dan Calton, Joel. 1995. A History of Modern World. Eight Edition. Petaling Jaya: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Peacock, Herbert. 1979. Sejarah Eropah Moden. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Peacock, John. 1997. Fashion Sourcebooks, The 1950s: With 310 Illustrations. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd.
Peterson, John. 1996. Europe and America: The Prospects for Partnership. London : Rontledge.
Qasim Ahmad. 1997. Eropah Moden: Arus Sosiopolitik Dan Pemerintahan. Edisi Kedua. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Rajendran, M. 1982. History of Japan. Kuala Lumpur: Arena Buku Sdn.Bhd.
Rostow, W.W. 1960. The United States in the World Arena: An Essay in Recent History. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rostow, W.W. 1960. The United States in the World Arena: An Essay in Recent History. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sadono Sukimo dan Mohamed Aslam Gulam Hassan. 1999. Makroekonomi: Teori, Maslah dan Dasar Kerajaan. Prentice Hall. Petaling Jaya.
Sandier, Stanley. 1999. The Korean War. London: UCL Press.
Schacfer, Richard T. 1993. Racial Ethnic Groups. Fifth Edition. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.
Spanier, John W. 1980. American Foreign Policy since World War II. Revised Edition. New York: Holt, Renihart & Winston, Inc.
Spanier, John W. 1980. American Foreign Policy since World War II. Revised Edition. New York: Holt, Renihart & Winston, Inc.
Spielvogel, Jackson J. 1998. World History: The Human Odyssey. Cincinnati: West Education Publishing.
Stoessinger, John G. 1994. Nations at Dawn: China, Russia, and America. United States: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Thurow, Lester C. 1996. The Future of Capitalism. Britain: Nicholas Brealey Publishing Limited.
Unger, Irwin and Tomes, Robert R. 1994. American Issue Since 1895. Volume 11. United States: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Unger, Irwin. 1999. The United States, The Questions of Out Past, Combined Concise Edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Webster's New World Encyclopedia. 1993. College Edition. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Weech, W.N. 1981. Sejarah Dunia. Jilid II. Terjemahan Abdul Karim Abdullah. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Wenborn, Neil. 1991. The Pictorial History Of The United States Of America: A Chorinicle Of The Nation From Columbus To The Present Day. England: The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited.
Wilson, John R. M. 2000. Forging the American Character: Reading in United States History Since 1865. Volume II. Third Edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Winkler, Allan M. 1994. The American People Creating A Nation and A Society. 3th Edition. New York: Happer Collins College Publishers.

Asas Penilaian
Pelajar-pelajar akan dinilai berdasarkan lima kriteria utama, iaitu kehadiran kuliah dan tutorial (wajib), tugasan/esei (20 peratus), pembentangan dalam bahasa Inggeris (10 peratus) dan pengulasan esei dalam bahasa Inggeris (10 peratus), ulasan buku [Inggeris] dalam bahasa Melayu (10 peratus) dan peperiksaan akhir semester (50 peratus). Tugasan kursus terdiri daripada beberapa soalan aspek, tema dan konsep yang harus dijawab dalam bentuk esei. Skop peperiksaan akhir adalah meliputi kursus intensif berdasarkan perkuliahan dan perbincangan tutorial.

Kehadiran kuliah dan tutorial adalah wajib 100 peratus. Kegagalan memenuhi syarat tersebut akan menyebabkan seseorang pelajar tidak dibenarkan menduduki peperiksaan akhir semester.

Tugasan kursus berbentuk eses panjang antara 10 dan 15 halaman teks bertaip dua langkau harus disiapkan untuk dibincangkan pada pertemuan tutorial setiap minggu. Penulisan mengikut perkaedahan dalam bidang Sejarah amat dititikberatkan dan wajib diamalkan secara serius.

Peperiksaan akhir akan dilaksanakan secara formal. Para pelajar kehendaki untuk menjawab dua soalan sahaja. Tempoh masa peperiksaan yang diberi ialah selama 2 jam.


Tajuk-Tajuk Perkuliahan
MINGGU 1 Amerika selepas Perang Dunia Kedua
Rujukan

Ambrose, Stephen. 1988. Rise to Globalism.
Feis, Herbert. 1966. The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II.
Gaddis, J.L. 1982. Strategies of Containment.
Smith, Gaddis. 1964. American Diplomacy During the Second World War.
Yergin, Daniel. 1977. Shattered Peace.

MINGGU 2 Perang Dingin
Rujukan

Gaddis, J.L. 1972. The United States and the Origin of the Cold War, 1941-1947.
LaFebar, Walter. 1980. America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945-1967.
Paterson, T.G. 1979. On Every Front: The Making of the Cold War.
Ulam, Adam. 1971. The Rivals: America and Russia Since World War II.
Weisberger, B. 1984. Cold War, Cold Peace.

MINGGU 3 Perang Korea
Rujukan

Caridi, Ronald. 1969. The Korean War and American Politics.
Cumings, Bruce. 1980. The Origins of the Korean War.
Cumings, Bruce. (ed.). 1983. Child of Conflict: The Korean-American Relationship, 1943-1953.
Dobbs, Charles W. 1081. The Unwanted Symbol.
Paige, G.D. 19968. The Korean Decision.

MINGGU 4 Kebangkitan gerakan hak sivil
Rujukan

Burk, R.F. 1984. The Eisenhower Administration and Black Civil Rights.
Huckaby, Elizabeth. 1980. Crisis at Central High.
Kluger, R. 1975. Simple Justice.
Norrell, R.J. 1985. Reaping the Whirlwind: The Civil Rights Movement in Tuskegee.
Stikoff, Harvard. 1981. The Struggle for Black Equality, 1854-1980.

MINGGU 5 Gerakan persamaan kaum
Rujukan

Brauer, Carl. 1977. John F. Kennedy and the Second Reconstruction.
Chafe, William. 1980. Civilities and Civil Rights.
Graham, H.D. 1990. The Civil Era.
Muse, Benjamin. 1969. The American Negro Revolution.
Weiss, Nancy. 1989. Whitney M. Young, Jr., and the Struggle of Civil Rights.

MINGGU 6 Perang Vietnam
Rujukan

Galloway, John. 1970. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
Gelb, L. & Betts, R. 1979. The Irony of Vietnam: The System Worked.
Herring, G.C. 1986. America's Longest War.
Lewy, Guenter. 1978. America in Vietnam.
Smith, R.B. 1985. An International History of the Vietnam War: The Kennedy Strategy.

MINGGU 7 Trauma 1968
Rujukan

Gilbert, Marc Jason & Head, William (Ed.). 1996. The Tet Offensive. Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated.
Gould, Lewis L. 1993. 1968: The Election That Changed America. Connecticut: Dee, Ivan R. Publisher
Jeffrey, Schevitz. 1979. The Weaponsmakers, Personal and Professional Crisis during the Vietnam War. Vermont: Schenkman Books Inc.
Ross, Robert Gaylon Sr. 2001. Elite Serial Killers of Lincoln, JFK, RFK and MLK. California: RIE.
Scott, Wilbur J. 1993. Politics of Readjustment Vietnam Veterans since the War.
New York: Aldine de Gruyter

MINGGU 8 Mobilisasi kaum minoriti
Rujukan

Burt, L.R. 1982. Tribalism in Crisis: Federal Indian Policy, 1953-1961.
Deloria, Vine, Jr. 1974. Behind the Trail of Broken Treaties.
McNickle, D'Arcy. 1973. Native American Tribalism.
Steiner, Stan. 1968. The New Indians.
Wilkinson, C.F. 1987. American Indians, Time, and the Law.

MINGGU 9 Politik dan ekonomi era Nixon
Rujukan

Brown, Seyom. 1979. The Crisis of Power.
Kissinger, H.A.1979. White House Years.
Schurman, Franz. 1987. The Foreign Policies of Richard Nixon.
Stevenson, R. 1985. The Rise and Fall of Détente.
Stookey, Robert. 1975. America and the Arab States.

MINGGU 10 Pentadbiran Ford dan Carter
Rujukan

Kutler, Stanley J. 1990. The Wars of Watergate.
Mazlish, Bruce. 1972. In Search of Nixon.
Miller, R.L. 1972. The New Economics of Richard Nixon.
Schell, Jonathan. 1975. The Time of Illusion.
Brodie, Fawn. 1981. Richard Nixon.

MINGGU 11 Revolusi Reagan
Rujukan

Haig, Alexander. 1984. Caveat: Realism, Reagan and Foreign Policy.
Newhouse, J. 1989. War and Peace in the Nuclear Age.
Pastor, R.O. 1987. Condemned to Repetition: The United States and Nicaragua.
Talbott, Strobe. 1988.The Master of the Game: Paul Nitze and the Nuclear Peace.
Wills, Garry. 1987. Reagan's America.

MINGGU 12 Dasar Militari George Bush
Rujukan

Abdul Karim Bangura. (Ed.). 2001. United States-African Relations: The Reagan-Bush Era.
Curry, Richard O. 1993. An Uncertain Future: Thought Control and Repression During the Reagan-Bush Era.
Hybel, Alex R. & Rosenau, James. 1993. Power over Rationality : The Bush Administration and the Gulf Crisis.
Jockel, Joseph. 1990. Canada-U.S. Relations in the Bush Era.
Rosemary Wallner. (Ed.). 1991. George Bush (War in the Gulf).

MINGGU 13 Isu-isu masyarakat moden Amerika Syarikat
Rujukan

Clecak, Peter. 1983. America's Quest for the Ideal Self.
Freccero, Carla. 1999. Popular Culture : An Introduction.
Levy, Frank. 1987. Dollars and Dreams: The Changing American Income Distribution.
Shilts, Randy. 1987. And the Band Played on: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic.
Terkel, Studs. 1988. The Great Divide.

MINGGU 14 Rumusan
Rujukan

Ambrose, Stephen E. & Brinkley, Douglas. 1997. Rise to Globalism: American Foreign Policy Since 1938.
Bailey, Thomas A., et al. 1998. The American Pageant: A History of the Republic.
Barzun, Jacques. 2001. From Dawn to Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life.
Boorstin, Daniel J. 1964. The Americans, the Colonial Experience.
Brokaw, Tom. 1998. The Greatest Generation.
Graebner, W. 1991. The Age of Doubt: American Thought and Culture in the 1940's.
Parrish, Michael E. 1994. Anxious Decades: America in Prosperity and Depression, 1920-1941.
Patterson, James T. 1997. Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945-1974. Vol. 10
Schulman, Bruce J.. 2001. The Seventies: The Great Shift in American Culture, Society, and Politics.
Zinn, Howard. 1998. The Twentieth Century: A People's History.

 

Tajuk Tutorial
1. "one might speak of the two decades after World War II as the era of affluence or the era of achievement...During these decades, the United States was involved with the rest of the world as its had never had been involved before. As C. Vann Woodward has observed, its era of free security had come to end." (Ernest R. May. The Cold War. Halaman 361. Dalam Woodward, C. Vann (ed.). 1968. A Comparative Approach to American History. New Haven: Voice of America Forum Lectures). Huraikan pernyataan tersebut dengan bukti-bukti yang konkrit.

2. "Within this society, economic change was matched by social change. World War II uprooted much of the American population...In combination with other factors, the movement of population and opening of new educational opportunities broke down barriers between ethnic and religious groups...The nation took giant strides not only toward affluence but also toward equality." (Ernest R. May. The Cold War. Halaman 361. Dalam Woodward, C. Vann (ed.). 1968. A Comparative Approach to American History. New Haven: Voice of America Forum Lectures). Berdasarkan pernyataan tersebut, galurkan perubahan sosial yang berlaku dari tahun 1950 hingga 1970.

3. Bincangkan mengenai perubahan hubungan antara Amerika Syarikat dengan China dan Soviet Union pada tahun 1970an.

4. Sejak tahun 1970an majoriti rakyat menggesa kerajaan Amerika Syarikat agar mengiktirafkan Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). Mengapa dan bagaimana kesudahannya.

5. Amerika Syarikat menghadapi masalah dengan Panama. Dua perjanjian damai telah ditandatangani pada bulan Ogos 1977 tetapi akhirnya Amerika Syarikat penawam Panama pada tahun 1989. Huraikan mengapa Amerika Syarikat sangat berminat dalam perkembangan politik Panama.

6. Polisi, "The enemy of my enemy is my friend" merupakan amalan Amerika Syarikat untuk melibatkan diri dalam masalah politik Timur Tengah sejak awal 1980an dan awal 1990an. Hujahkan dengan bukti-bukti yang konkrit.

7. Apakah matlamat dasar ekonomi Ronald Reagan apabila beliau menjawat jawatan Presiden. Jelas mengenai polisi 'Reagonomics' yang diperkenalkan untuk mencapai matlamat tersebut.

8. Selain daripada masalah diplomatik, huraikan masalah-masalah domestik yang dihadapi oleh Presiden George Bush semasa pentadbirannya.

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